Introduction to Deductive Reasoning and Mathematics III

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Before examining some formal rules of deductive logic, we should observe that Aristotle invented logic and we should examine the three so-called Fundamental Rules of Thought which he formulated.  You may read more about Aristotle’s involvement with the beginnings of logic. https://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/Philosophers/Aristotle/aristotle_laws_of_thought.html

 The Three Fundamental Rules of Thought

  1. The Law of Identity
    1. Whatever is, is;
    2. Every A is A.
  2. The Law of Contradiction
    1. Nothing can both be and not be
    2. Nothing can be A and not A.
  3. The Law of Excluded Middle
    1. Everything must either be or not be
    2. Everything is either A or not A.

My variation these laws as state in  Stock, St. George William Joseph. Deductive Logic (pp. 16-17). Kindle Edition.

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