Introduction to Deductive Reasoning and Mathematics III

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Before examining some formal rules of deductive logic, we should observe that Aristotle invented logic and we should examine the three so-called Fundamental Rules of Thought which he formulated.  You may read more about Aristotle’s involvement with the beginnings of logic.

 The Three Fundamental Rules of Thought

  1. The Law of Identity
    1. Whatever is, is;
    2. Every A is A.
  2. The Law of Contradiction
    1. Nothing can both be and not be
    2. Nothing can be A and not A.
  3. The Law of Excluded Middle
    1. Everything must either be or not be
    2. Everything is either A or not A.

My variation these laws as state in  Stock, St. George William Joseph. Deductive Logic (pp. 16-17). Kindle Edition.

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