Two researchers (Rubenstein and Thompson below), have identified the following 11 categories of difficulties associated with learning the language of mathematics. Meanings are context dependent Reciprocal of a number vs reciprocal agreement Foot as in 12 inches vs. the foot of the bed Teachers must address the confusion directly by discussing the stipulative definitions important

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# Learning Stipulative Definitions in Mathematics is Difficult

Effective communication in mathematics is a non-trivial but essential skill. Communication in mathematics involves: Mathematical understanding. Vocabulary knowledge base. Fluency and proficiency with; numbers, symbols, words, and diagrams; Comprehension skills. Difficulties students face when learning the language of mathematics are complex and can negatively impact their entire mathematics development. A teacher’s intervention is required to