A few seconds of attention, a little motivation, some previously learned related information, and a perceived fact is stored in long-term memory. The final component of learning is: Retrieving knowledge from long-term memory.
If information cannot be recalled from long-term memory it is FORGOTTEN.
The last few essays have established that the only thing which prevents learning is FORGETTING: Forgetting from sensory memory, forgetting from short-term memory, and forgetting from long-term memory. This leads to the following characterization of learning.